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2.3.2 Industrial Activities

The second TICCS® pillar categorises infrastructure companies by groups of industrial activities. Industrial-sector group classifications (or superclasses) represent broad areas of industrial activity as well as transaction or project-development expertise. Industrial sector and sub-sector classifications (or classes and subclasses) represent specific industrial activities and types of physical assets and technologies.

Academic Insights

Standard industrial classification can be ill-suited to represent the different types of infrastructure companies. They focus on broad industrial activities only, and fail to take into account other aspects of the delivery of infrastructure projects and services. For instance, an airport operator and an airline-catering company are typically bundled together. Thus, under MSCI's Global Industrial Classification Standard, “operators of airports and companies providing related services” are classified together.

Likewise, many road-operating companies are categorised as construction firms, while some project-financing vehicles are often found under 'financials.'

A better way to view the activities of infrastructure companies is as broad families of technical and financial skill sets that are relevant not only to creating and operating infrastructure companies but also to investing in them.

Infrastructure investments require highly specialised knowledge of various industrial processes, such as power generation or the construction and maintenance of major structures, and also awareness of project management and financial structuring.

Transportation projects have common technical and industrial features, as do renewable-energy or social infrastructure projects. These correspond to broad groups of professionals who have the relevant know-how to understand and execute individual transactions.

For instance, stand-alone power generation facilities may use different fuel types and water-treatment companies may serve residential (potable water) or industrial clients (ultra-pure water). Wind power generation may be on-shore or off-shore. Such industrial activities can be sufficiently differentiated to warrant individual classifications. For example, different types of power-generation fuel (coal vs gas vs nuclear) have an impact on the level of regulatory risk taken by investors.

Infrastructure Asset Inclusion Criteria

The inclusion of different asset types in TICCS® is determined by a number of fundamental economic criteria.

Rolling stock and other edge cases

The matter of whether rolling stock should be included in TICCS® is determined by our treatment of finance leases (vs. operating leases) as explained in the 2019 Consultation Results.

The TICCS® Industrial Classification

TICCS® uses a multi-criteria classification system focusing specifically on infrastructure-related industrial activities, as well as varying degrees of complexity, size, and scale. Using the insights above, TICCS® includes the following industrial classes and subclasses:

  • 8 industrial-group classifications (or superclasses)

  • 35 industrial classes

  • 101 industrial subclasses or asset-level categories

The table below describes the TICCS® industrial classification and the following tables provide the corresponding definitions.

Table: TICCS® Industrial Activity Classifications

Code

Name

Code

Name

Code

Name

IC10

Power Generation x-Renewables

IC1010

Independent Power Producers

IC101010

Nuclear Power Generation

 

 

 

 

IC101020

Gas-Fired Power Generation

 

 

 

 

IC101030

Coal-Fired Power Generation

 

 

 

 

IC101040

Combined Heat and Power Generation

 

 

 

 

IC101050

Other Fossil-Fuel-Fired Power Generation

 

 

IC1020

Independent Water and Power Producers

IC102010

Power and Water Production

IC20

Environmental Services

IC2010

Waste Treatment

IC201010

Non-Hazardous Waste Treatment

 

 

 

 

IC201020

Hazardous Waste Treatment

 

 

 

 

IC201030

Waste-to-Power Generation

 

 

 

 

IC201040

Waste incineration

 

 

 

 

IC201050

Gaseous Waste Treatment

 

 

IC2020

Water Supply and Treatment

IC202010

Potable Water Treatment

 

 

 

 

IC202020

Industrial Water Treatment

 

 

 

 

IC202030

Sea Water Desalination

 

 

 

 

IC202040

Water Supply Dams

 

 

IC2030

Wastewater Treatment

IC203010

Residential Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

 

 

 

 

IC203020

Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

 

 

IC2040

Environmental Management

IC204010

Flood Control

 

 

 

 

IC204020

Coastal and Riverine Locks

 

 

 

 

IC204030

Energy Efficiency

 

 

 

 

IC204040

Carbon Capture

IC30

Social Infrastructure

IC3010

Defence Services

IC301010

Strategic Transport and Refuelling

 

 

 

 

IC301020

Training Facilities

 

 

 

 

IC301030

Barracks and Accommodation

 

 

IC3020

Education Services

IC302010

Schools (Classes and Sports Facilities)

 

 

 

 

IC302020

Universities (Classes, Labs, Administration Buildings)

 

 

 

 

IC302030

Student Accommodation

 

 

IC3030

Government Services

IC303010

Police Stations and Facilities

 

 

 

 

IC303020

Courts of Justice

 

 

 

 

IC303030

Prisons

 

 

 

 

IC303040

Street Lighting

 

 

 

 

IC303050

Social Accommodation

 

 

 

 

IC303060

Gov. Buildings and Office Accommodation

 

 

IC3040

Health and Social Care Services

IC304010

Hospitals

 

 

 

 

IC304020

Clinics

 

 

 

 

IC304030

Residential and Assisted Living

 

 

 

 

IC304040

Crematorium

 

 

IC3050

Recreational Facilities

IC305010

Stadiums and Sports Centres

 

 

 

 

IC305020

Public Parks and Gardens

 

 

 

 

IC305030

Convention and Exhibition Centres

 

 

 

 

IC305040

Arts, Libraries, and Museums

IC40

Energy and Water Resources

IC4010

Natural Resources Transportation Companies

IC401010

Gas Pipeline

 

 

 

 

IC401020

Oil Pipeline

 

 

 

 

IC401030

Water Pipeline

 

 

 

 

IC401040

Wastewater Pipeline

 

 

 

 

IC401050

LNG Ships

 

 

IC4020

Energy Resource Processing Companies

IC402010

Liquefied Natural Gas - Liquefaction

 

 

 

 

IC402020

Liquefied Natural Gas - Regasification

 

 

 

 

IC402030

Crude Oil Refinery

 

 

 

 

IC402040

Bioethanol Fuel

 

 

IC4030

Energy Resource Storage Companies

IC403010

Gas Storage

 

 

 

 

IC403020

Liquid Storage

 

 

 

 

IC403030

Other Storage

 

 

 

 

IC403040

Floating Storage Units - FSU

IC50

Data Infrastructure

IC5010

Data Transmission

IC501010

Cell towers

 

 

 

 

IC501020

Long-Distance Cables

 

 

 

 

IC501030

Communication Satellites

 

 

 

 

IC501040

Radio and media towers

 

 

IC5020

Data Storage

IC502010

Data Centres

IC60

Transport

IC6010

Airport Companies

IC601010

Airport

 

 

IC6020

Car Park Companies

IC602010

Car Park

 

 

IC6030

Port Companies

IC603010

Tool Port

 

 

 

 

IC603020

Bulk Goods Port

 

 

 

 

IC603030

Container Port

 

 

 

 

IC603040

Other Port

 

 

IC6040

Rail Companies

IC604010

Heavy Rail Lines

 

 

 

 

IC604020

High Speed Rail Lines

 

 

 

 

IC604030

Freight Rail Rolling Stock

 

 

 

 

IC604040

Passenger Rail Rolling Stock

 

 

IC6050

Road Companies

IC605010

Motorways

 

 

 

 

IC605020

Motorway Network

 

 

 

 

IC605030

Dual-Carriage way roads

 

 

 

 

IC605040

Stand-Alone Tunnels

 

 

 

 

IC605050

Stand-Alone Bridges

 

 

IC6060

Urban Commuter Companies

IC606010

Urban Light-Rail

 

 

 

 

IC606020

Underground Mass Transit

 

 

 

 

IC606030

Overground Mass Transit

 

 

 

 

IC606040

Bus Transportation

IC70

Renewable Power

IC7010

Wind Power Generation

IC701010

On-Shore Wind Power Generation

 

 

 

 

IC701020

Off-Shore Wind Power Generation

 

 

IC7020

Solar Power Generation

IC702010

Photovoltaic Power Generation

 

 

 

 

IC702020

Thermal Solar Power

 

 

IC7030

Hydroelectric Power Generation

IC703010

Hydroelectric Dam Power Generation

 

 

 

 

IC703020

Hydroelectric Run-of-River Power

 

 

 

 

IC703030

Pumped Hydroelectric storage

 

 

IC7040

Other Renewable Power Generation

IC704010

Biomass Power Generation

 

 

 

 

IC704020

Geothermal Power Generation

 

 

 

 

IC704030

Wave Power Generation

 

 

IC7050

Other Renewable Technologies

IC705010

Battery storage

 

 

 

 

IC705020

Off-Shore Transmission (OFTO)

 

 

 

 

IC705030

Thermal storage

 

 

IC7060

Hydrogen power generation

IC706010

Hydrogen-fired power generation

 

 

 

 

IC706020

Hydrogen fuel cells

 

 

 

 

IC706030

Hydrogen storage

IC80

Network Utilities

IC8010

Electricity Distribution Companies

IC801010

Electricity Distribution Network

 

 

IC8020

Electricity Transmission Companies

IC802010

Electricity Transmission Network

 

 

IC8030

District Cooling/Heating Companies

IC803010

District Cooling/Heating Network

 

 

IC8040

Water and Sewerage Companies

IC804010

Water and Sewerage Network

 

 

IC8050

Gas Distribution Companies

IC805010

Gas Distribution Network

 

 

IC8060

Data Distribution Companies

IC806010

Data Distribution Network

 

 

IC8070

Smart metering Companies

IC807010

Smart metering network

Table: TICCS® Superclass and Class-Level Definitions

Code

Definition

Code

Definition

IC10

Stand-alone power generation using a range of technologies except wind, solar, and other renewable sources.

IC1010

Independent power producers (IPP) provide electricity to power distribution and transmission companies or directly to industrial or commercial clients.

 

 

IC1020

Independent water and power producers (IWPP) are power producers with a colocated water-desalination or filtration facility. Industrial, potable, or ultra-pure water is typically a by-product of the power generation process.

IC20

Companies involved in the treatment of water, wastewater, and solid waste for sanitation and reuse purposes.

IC2010

Waste treatment services include the collection and disposal of solid refuse from residential, commercial, or industrial sources.

 

 

IC2020

Stand-alone water treatment companies produce water for various uses, including residential, commercial, and industrial end users.

 

 

IC2030

Stand-alone wastewater treatment companies treat wastewater from residential, commercial, and industrial sources to a certain discharge or reuse standard.

 

 

IC2040

Environmental management companies invest in projects that conserve natural resources, protect habitats, and control hazards.

IC30

Companies involved in the delivery of support and accommodation services for public or other services.

IC3010

Defence infrastructure companies provide noncombatant support services to public-sector military organisations, including strategic transport, training facilities, and telecommunications.

 

 

IC3020

Infrastructure companies providing education services through the development and maintenance of school and university buildings and related facilities for the use of public or private institutions.

 

 

IC3030

Infrastructure companies providing support and accommodation services to government departments and other public-sector organisations and agencies.

 

 

IC3040

Healthcare infrastructure companies provide support service and facilities to public- or private-sector medical treatment units.

 

 

IC3050

Convention, entertainment, and recreational facilities infrastructure companies deliver and maintain various large-scale leisure facilities typically requiring a bespoke structural-engineering component.

IC40

Companies involved in the treatment and delivery of natural resources.

IC4010

Pipeline companies develop and operate high-pressure transmission pipelines.

 

 

IC4020

Energy natural resource processing companies transform crude oil, natural gas, and other commodities into various derivative or transformed products.

 

 

IC4040

Energy natural resource storage companies provide storage services to private and public clients by exploiting large natural caverns or buildings and maintaining over- or underground tanks.

IC50

Companies involved in the provision of telecommunication and data infrastructure.

IC5010

Data transmission companies involved in the construction, operation, and maintenance of data transmission assets including telecommunications towers, land or sea based long-distance communication cables, and communication satellites.

 

 

IC5020

Data storage companies involved in the development, operation, and maintenance of physical data storage infrastructure. This does not include companies that offer data storage in addition to other products.

IC60

Companies involved in the provision of transportation infrastructure services.

IC6010

Airport companies build, maintain, and operate airport terminals, runways, and associated support and logistical services. Large airports also lease property for commercial and retail purposes.

 

 

IC6020

Car park service companies provide individual and commercial end users with vehicle-parking facilities. They are relatively small-scale structures built over- and underground mostly within large urban areas.

 

 

IC6030

Port infrastructure companies build, maintain, and operate port jetties, passenger terminals, and freight transit and storage facilities.

 

 

IC6040

Rail companies provide long-distance, intercity passenger and freight services.

 

 

IC6050

Road companies build, maintain, and operate roads and motorways including bridges and tunnels.

 

 

IC6060

Urban commuter companies build, maintain, and operate urban rail routes from light (tramway) to mass-transit rail tracks, including over- and underground rail lines.

IC70

Stand-alone power generation and transmission companies using wind, solar, hydro and other renewable energy sources. Also energy storage companies.

IC7010

Wind power companies produce electricity using wind power to operate various types of electromagnetic turbines.

 

 

IC7020

Solar power companies produce electricity by capturing solar radiation using a range of solar-cell technologies.

 

 

IC7030

Hydroelectric power generating companies use water to produce electricity. This can either be from a dam or from a river.

 

 

IC7040

Other renewable power generation companies using various physical phenomena or alternative renewable fuels (other than the wind, sun, or hydro) to generate electricity.

 

 

IC7050

Other renewables technology companies use a variety of different methods to provide, store and transmit renewable energy.

 

 

IC7060

Hydrogen fired power generating companies that use hydrogen as a fuel. In which the fuel was produced through the electrolysis process. Further involves infrastructure in containing hydrogen through a common method of pressurized storage.

IC80

Companies operating an infrastructure network with natural monopoly characteristics (barriers to entry, increasing returns to scale).

IC8010

Electricity distribution companies distribute medium-voltage electricity to final consumers.

 

 

IC8020

Electricity transmission companies transmit relatively high-voltage electricity from the point of generation source to a distribution network.

 

 

IC8030

Heating or cooling companies provide service in urban areas using combined heat and power to recycle or reuse waste heat.

 

 

IC8040

Water and sewerage companies provide potable water treatment and distribution services as well as the collection, treatment, and disposal of wastewater and sewerage.

 

 

IC8050

Gas distribution companies operate low-pressure pipeline networks delivering natural gas to end residential, commercial, and industrial consumers.

 

 

IC8060

Data distribution companies involve in provision of essential data network especially to sectors of economy (e.g. financial systems, industrial supply chain, public utilities, etc) through utilisation of fiber networks, cell towers, data centers and other data infrastructure.

 

 

IC8070

A metering system that monitors and records the utility consumption in a building or area. It usually consists of networked meters built together with sensors and controllers.

Table: TICCS® Subclass-Level Definitions

Code

Definition

IC101010

Nuclear power plants heat water in producing steam using nuclear reactors combined with the Rankine cycle. It is a nuclear fission process whereby the steam is used to spin large turbines that generate electricity.

IC101020

Gas-fired power plants that utilise Open-cycle gas turbine (OCGT) and Combined Cycle gas turbine (CCGT) technologies. OCGT plants burn natural gas to create a pressurised gas as the working fluid used to turn a turbine to extract energy in the form of electricity. While CCGT plants employ both gas turbine and steam turbines in combination to maximise electricity output where it uses the resulting waste heat from the gas turbine to produce steam to run the steam turbine.

IC101030

Coal-fired plants where coal is pulverized and injected into a boiler and burned to produce steam that flows into a turbine that spins a generator to generate electricity.

IC101040

Cogeneration power plant that concurrently generates electricity and thermal energy used for a district or industrial heating from a single fuel source.

IC101050

Power plant where crude oil and gaseous fuels other than natural gas are used to generate electricity.

IC102010

Power producers with a co-located water-desalination or filtration facility. Industrial, potable, or ultra-pure water is typically a by-product of the power generation process.

IC201010

Waste treatment facilities that treat common residential, commercial and industrial waste that is considered non-hazardous in solid or non-solid states. The facilities include landfills, transfer stations, compost facilities, recyclers, and processors.

IC201020

Waste treatment facilities that are meant for hazardous waste originating from residential, commercial or industrial sources whereby the treatment involves chemical, biological and physical methods. The facilities also have a safety containment system for temporary storage before landfill disposal.

IC201030

Power plants that burn solid waste at a high temperature to produce superheated steam that drives generators to produce electricity.

IC201040

A plant that incinerates waste through a moving grate, rotary kiln, thermal oxidizers for gases, fumes, and liquid waste. The types of waste include residential, hazardous, medical, and many others. No electricity as by-product.

IC201050

Waste treatment facilities that treat gaseous waste via thermal and dry or wet gas treatment.

IC202010

A water treatment facility that removes impurities in the raw water collected from a lake, reservoir or river to produce water that is consumable for humans. Water flows into the tank, where coagulation, flocculation, and clarification, followed by sedimentation, occur.

IC202020

Industrial wastewater treatment is used to treat contaminated waters by industrial activities before it can be reused or release into the environment.

IC202030

A facility that removes salt and other elements from water in order to generate clean water. Typically, it separates water molecules from seawater using reverse osmosis technology.

IC202040

A water dam is a structure built across a river or a stream used to supply water for agriculture, industrial uses and household uses.

IC203010

Residential wastewater treatment facility employed to reduce contamination level for reuse. Those include Constructed wetlands, biogas settlers, anaerobic baffled reactors, septic tanks, leach fields, evapo-transpiration beds, and surface or subsurface groundwater recharge.

IC203020

Companies that employ Industries wastewater purification and recycle for reuse through methods such as sedimentation, aerobic biological treatment, oxidation ponds, biological nutrient removal and disinfection.

IC204010

Drainage infrastructure system to hold rainwater in order to prevent urban flooding. This includes temporary rainwater storage tanks and drains and canals. The flood control infrastructure also includes temporary flood barriers such as sheet-piling or raised embankments in flood-prone areas.

IC204020

Lock systems that protect marine habitats, control connectivity between rivers and their tributaries and barriers that keep seawater out at the coastal for flood protection

IC204030

Energy efficient infrastructure that helps reduce energy demand, while improving energy efficiency and prioritizing emission reductions

IC204040

Carbon capture facility refer to point-source carbon capture from the energy, industrial and manufacturing processes. The captured carbon is transported via pipeline to underground carbon dioxide storage in geological formations or reusing it for other purposes.

IC301010

Provision of defence services by a facility in strategic transport and refuelling aircraft.

IC301020

Buildings, facilities and grounds that are used by defence forces for military training.

IC301030

Army barracks and provision of defence living accommodation.

IC302010

Buildings with facilities necessary for instructional for primary and secondary students and have the related supporting purposes including classrooms, libraries, cafeterias and physical sport spaces.

IC302020

Buildings with facilities necessary for instructional for tertiary students and have the related supporting purposes including classrooms, libraries, cafeterias and physical sport spaces.

IC302030

Dormitories for students to live in, with residential quarters for large number of students.

IC303010

Buildings with office spaces available to officers, detectives and administrative employees and has other related facilities, including cells for detainers.

IC303020

Buildings and facilities for provision of judicial system.

IC303030

Secure confinement of people who have been convicted or charged with crimes and in removing them from free society.

IC303040

Streetlights that provide source of light along public roads, back lanes and service roads.

IC303050

Public housing whereby it is meant for lower-income households to rent and acquire. It is usually set at a fairly low cost by organisations such as the local council.

IC303060

Buildings used for governmental purposes and manage government agencies’ office accommodation needs.

IC304010

A building that is used to house one or more wards with beds for inpatients and health facilities with medical equipment and device for nursing care, treatment to a patient, and other healthcare services.

IC304020

A facility or hospital department where outpatients get medical treatment or consultation, from general medical care to specialist services.

IC304030

Nursing homes for people who need daily care and primary provision of health and personal care services.

IC304040

A building with facilities including a cremation furnace and chamber.

IC305010

It is a venue with a field or stage surrounded by tiers of seats that house a large scale of spectators for sports events, concerts or other events.

IC305020

An area designed for active or passive public recreational use.

IC305030

A large building with exhibition facilities and halls designed exclusively for convention and exhibition.

IC305040

Buildings with collections of literature, history of arts and architecture and provision of services for visitors and students.

IC401010

An infrastructure composed of pipes that transport extracted natural gas from the point where natural gas was extracted to the point where it was processed or delivered to the starting point of the distribution system.

IC401020

Pipelines that move crude oil production from wells to central stations for further handling. It includes pipelines that deliver oil to larger transmission pipelines transporting their products to refineries and export facilities.

IC401030

An infrastructure of high-pressure and long-distance water conveyance pipelines used to move water to serve urban and agricultural users from major sources of water.

IC401040

Pipelines that collect wastewater produced at production sites and pumps it at high pressure to remote storage or a disposal site.

IC401050

Ship vessel equipped with containment systems carrying LNG in bulk. The system has heavy-insulated, temperature-controlled tanks that ensure the LNG is kept in a liquid state, enabling gas transportation between the liquefaction plant and the regasification site.

IC402010

LNG facilities where the natural gas is processed and treated through the gas liquefaction cycle, before storage or transportation.

IC402020

Facilities that convert the liquefied natural gas back to a gaseous state by using a heat exchanger with sea water as a heat medium to increase the heat of the natural gas to change it from liquid to a gaseous state.

IC402030

An oil refinery is an industrial plant that transforms or refines crude oil into various usable petroleum products. The process involves distillation, cracking and reforming.

IC402040

A type of fuel that is derived from plant material. In most cases, this means that the fuel is made from corn or other types of grain. The plant material is fermented using a fermentation tank and then distilled to create the final product.

IC403010

Natural gas is typically held underground in three types of reservoirs: depleted oil and gas fields, depleted aquifers, and in salt beds and salt caverns.

IC403020

Liquid terminals and above-ground storage tank facilities are interconnected with and used to store natural resources in liquid form.

IC403030

Storage facilities for natural resources other than liquid and gas.

IC403040

Floating terminal with storage facilities for LNG.

IC501010

A short structure that houses equipment for transmitting and receiving radio signals between a cell phone and a network. The equipment at a cell tower site includes a tower, equipment shelter, generator, and battery backup.

IC501020

Long distance cables on land and subsea cables where fibre optic cables connect countries across the world via cables typically buried underground or laid on the seabed.

IC501030

Satellite companies own and operate individual or constellations of commercial or military satellites to serve various private- or public-sector clients

IC501040

A tall structure usually have large antennas on top to enable the transmission of radio waves over long distances for television and radio stations.

IC502010

A dedicated physical facility that used by enterprises to store and share applications and data.

IC601010

Airport companies build, maintain, and operate airport terminals, runways, and associated support and logistical services. Large airports also lease property for commercial and retail purposes.

IC602010

Building or space designated for parking. It can be in the form of attendant facility, metered facility, or operated by means of automatic parking gates.

IC603010

A port model where port infrastructure companies leases both the port infrastructure and superstructure assets from the authority and provides services to 3rd parties. The assets are owned, developed and maintained by the port authority.

IC603020

Industrial port that has all the facilities required for the storage and transhipment of bulk cargo.

IC603030

It is a facility where cargo containers are transhipped between different types of transport vehicles - for example, container vessel to container trucks or trains.

IC603040

Ports other than tool port, bulk goods port and container port.

IC604010

Long-distance heavy rail tracks out to the suburbs or between the cities.

IC604020

Long-distance tracks with dedicated electrification, grade separated from roads and other railroads that allow rail transportation to at higher speed than traditional rail traffic.

IC604030

Railway vehicles in both powered and unpowered vehicles usually in the form of rail freight locomotives and heavy-haul wagons.

IC604040

Coaches that designed to carry passengers on a railway.

IC605010

The motorway connects two or more important cities, and usually, the traffic is uninterrupted without traffic signals. It allows vehicles to travel at high speed, and it is common in two lanes per side of the road and has tollgates as motorways charge tolls.

IC605020

A network of roads with inter-city features that have a number of lanes and connect different towns and cities with intersecting roads via traffic lights is a system of highways in any country.

IC605030

Divided highway which multiple lanes with traffic going in opposite direction.

IC605040

Underground passageway purposed to connect passage under a mountain or river and divert traffic from congested urban areas.

IC605050

A structure spanning and providing passage over a gap or barrier, such as river or roadway. Types of bridges include arch bridge, beam bridge, girder bridge, cable stayed bridge and truss bridge.

IC606010

A system of tramway tracks and powered by overhead electrical wires and used for medium-capacity local transportation in metropolitan areas.

IC606020

Underground railway system within suburban areas.

IC606030

Overground railway system within suburban areas.

IC606040

A bus rapid transit system that runs within the metropolitan area. The infrastructure assets include stations, terminals and bus fleet.

IC701010

Onshore wind energy is generated by wind turbines that are located on land and use the wind occurring in terrestrial locations.

IC701020

Offshore wind energy that relies on the power of the wind at sea, where it has greater speed and is more consistent due to the lack of barriers. Megastructures, seated atop the seabed and equipped with turbines, are utilized to harness this powerful resource.

IC702010

Uses Photovoltaic (PV) panels that convert sunlight into electricity energy. A photovoltaic (PV) system is composed of one or more solar panels combined with an inverter, a mounting apparatus (Racking) and other electrical and mechanical hardware that use energy from the Sun to generate electricity.

IC702020

Solar thermal energy generation that collect and concentrate sunlight to produce the high temperature heat needed to generate electricity.

IC703010

Power station that has turbines relying on gravity flow of water from the dam to generate electricity.

IC703020

Power station that harness the energy from a flowing river to generate electricity.

IC703030

Hydroelectric energy storage facilities that store energy via interconnected reservoirs with one at a lower elevation.

IC704010

Power facilities that convert biomass waste, logging residue or agriculture to energy through processes of direct combustion to create heat in generating electricity.

IC704020

Power plants that uses geothermal energy to generate electricity via flash system, binary cycle system or dry steam system.

IC704030

Facilities that generate electricity from harnessing the wave energy from oceans.

IC705010

Storage devices enable energy from renewables, like solar and wind, to be stored and released when the users require it.

IC705020

Electrical transmission assets that connect offshore wind farms to the onshore electricity network.

IC705030

Energy storage system that store thermal energy to be used later. It operates by means of heating or cooling a media such as water tank.

IC706010

Power plants that generate electricity from the hydrogen fuel cells.

IC706020

Electricity from renewable sources will be fed into an electrolyser with water to make green hydrogen. Where the hydrogen fuel will be compressed, stored, and sold for use as a carbon-free fuel.

IC706030

Storage facilities that store hydrogen in either gas or liquid forms through means such as salt caverns and pipe storage.

IC801010

Distribution lines are low-voltage power lines that transport energy from substations to residences, businesses, and other end users. The lines are shorter and span less distance.

IC802010

Transmission power lines connect power plants to substations at a high voltage. Transmission lines can transport electricity from one end of the country to the other using interstate connections.

IC803010

A heating network generates and distributes heat in the form of hot water and superheated steam using one or more generating units. While district cooling refers to a cooling network in a centralized system that provides chilled water to supply an air conditioning system.

IC804010

Water is delivered to end consumers via a network of pipelines, mains, and pumping stations, and is stored in a system of urban water service reservoirs. While sewerage systems are made up of service branch lines from the end users, which feed into reticulation mains. The mains feed into pump stations and trunk sewers, which then lead to treatment plants.

IC805010

Gas distribution deals with the medium and low pressure gas mains that convey gas to end customers by a distribution utility.

IC806010

Fibre-to-the-Home (FTTH) network whereby a network that connects telecom facilities with the end-users over optical fibre to provide communication signals.

IC807010

Smart meter assets installed in the distribution grids to improve energy and gas management and reduce carbon emissions. And water meters in homes and businesses to measure water consumption and encourage water conservation.

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