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Global climate hazard maps

Global climate hazard maps for various return periods (100-, 50- and 30-year events) and hazards (tropical storms, extratropical storms, fluvial flood, pluvial flood, and count of days above temperature thresholds) were purchased from commercial data providers (RMS, Royal HaskoningDHV). These hazard maps provide the corresponding hazard values for each hazard event. For example, flood hazard maps provide flood depth in meters, and storm hazard maps provide the maximum wind speed in knots (see table below). We use this information as input for the damage functions that are part of the physical risk models.

Table: The underlying model and data for each hazard type

Hazard type

Hazard unit

Maps resolution

Underlying data and models

Flood (fluvial, pluvial, and coastal)

Flood depth in meters

Global 10m2

Hazard maps for different return periods are obtained from Moody’s global flood database [1].

Tropical storm (cyclone)

Max wind speed

Global 11 km2

Hazard maps are derived from a state-of-the-art probabilistic tropical storm database generated by a team at the Vrije University [2]. The database contains 10,000 years of synthetic cyclone activity. To statistically extend historical data to 10,000 years of cyclone data, the STORM methodology was applied – a newly developed resampling algorithm – to 38 years of cyclone data from the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) project [3].

Extratropical storms

Global 1 km2

Wind gusts are taken from the ERA5 re-analysis dataset [4], developed by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The ERA5 combines vast amounts of historical atmospheric, land, and oceanic climate observations with global estimates using advanced modelling and data assimilation systems. The dataset includes hourly data since 1979. ERA5 includes several wind parameters, such as wind speed, instantaneous wind gust, and wind gust since previous post-processing.

Thermal stress (heat and cold)

Count of days exceeding temperature thresholds

6 different thresholds: below -15°, -10°, -5°C and above 30°, 40°, 45°C

Hourly data aggregated to daily maximum and minimum temperatures is derived from the ERA5 re-analysis dataset [4]. To calculate the average annual number of days the thresholds were exceeded, a 30-year period (1992–2022) was analysed.

We calculated the thermal stress count for each asset based on the temperatures in the area the asset occupies.

[1] Moody’s RMS. (2023). Global flood data and maps. Global flood maps. Moody’s RMS.  

[2] Bloemendaal, N., Haigh, I.D., de Moel, H., Muis, S., Haarsma, R.J., & Aerts, J. C. (2020). Generation of a global synthetic tropical cyclone hazard dataset using storm. Scientific Data, 7, 1-12.

[3] NCEI. (2023, June 9). International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS). National Centers for Environmental Information – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

[4] Copernicus. (2018, June 14). ERA5 hourly data on single levels from 1940 to present. Copernicus Climate Data Store.!/dataset/reanalysis-era5-single-levels

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